During World War I, President Woodrow Wilson proposed the Fourteen Points, a plan for world peace that included the establishment of a union of nations to ensure European security and prevent nations from concluding secret treaties of mutual protection. Much of this idealistic plan was sunk during the negotiations, when the other allied nations shifted their priorities to reparations. On June 28, 1919, European dignitaries flocked to the Palace of Versailles on the outskirts of Paris to sign one of the most hated treaties in history. Known as the Treaty of Versailles, it officially ended World War I – and at the same time laid the groundwork for World War II. Although it was preceded by a peace conference that lasted more than a year, the treaty was not appreciated by all the nations that signed it. The arrangement elaborated in the peace treaties included the payment of war reparations, commitment to minority rights and territorial adjustments, including the end of the Italian colonial empire in Africa, Greece and Albania, as well as changes to the Italo-Yugoslav, Hungarian-Czechoslovak, Soviet-Romanian, Hungarian-Romanian, French-Italian and Soviet-Finnish borders. The treaties also obliged individual states to hand over accused war criminals to the Allied Powers for war crimes trials.  convinced that the unification of Germany as a state with definitive borders is an essential contribution to peace and stability in Europe; In Wilson`s vision of the post-war world, all nations (not just the losers) would reduce their armed forces, preserve the freedom of the seas, and join an international peace organization called the League of Nations. But his allied leaders dismissed much of his plan as naïve and overly idealistic. The French, in particular, wanted Germany to pay a high price for the war, including loss of territory, disarmament, and payment of reparations, while the British saw Wilson`s plan as a threat to their dominance in Europe. Italy lost the colonies of Italian Libya and Italian East Africa. The latter consisted of Italian Ethiopia, Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland.
Italy ruled the former Italian Somaliland until 1960 as a UN Trust Territory. In the peace treaty, Italy recognized the independence of Albania (in personal union with the Italian monarchy after the Italian invasion of Albania in April 1939). Italy also lost its concession at Tianjin, which was handed over to China, and the Dodecanese islands in the Aegean Sea were ceded to Greece. FEBRUARY/MARCH 2009 — Talk about an endless war. More than 60 years after the end of World War II, Russia and Japan have resumed negotiations on an unsigned peace treaty that would finally officially end the war between the two countries. .