Since the farmer`s highest appel tribunal against a private body was the appeal authority, the farmer is effectively prevented from moving the court. For this case, opposition parties claim that the law was heavily distorted in favour of private institutions, as individual farmers did not have the resources available to private companies.  The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Ordinance, 2020 The Act was passed jointly as part of the Farm Bills 2020. An agricultural agreement may be linked to insurance or credit instruments under a central or regional government system, or through a financial service provider, in order to ensure “risk reduction” and the flow of credit to the farmer, the promoter or both. The Trade and Commerce Regulation gives buyers the freedom to purchase farm products outside of APMC markets without having a license or paying fees to APMCs. The Contract Farming Regulation provides buyers and farmers with a framework for concluding a contract (before the start of the harvest season) guaranteeing farmers a minimum price and guaranteed supply to buyers. The third regulation amends the Essential Commodities Act by the fact that conservation restrictions on agricultural products can only be imposed if retail prices rise sharply and exempt participants and exporters from any inventory limitations. The three regulations aim to increase the availability of buyers for farmers` products by allowing them free trade without licensing or limiting stocks, so that increased competition between them leads to better prices for farmers.  While the regulations aim to liberalize trade and increase the number of buyers, this may not be enough to attract more buyers. The agricultural products mentioned in the agreements provided for in this Act are excluded from the application of the laws of the State intended to regulate the sale or purchase of agricultural products. Notwithstanding the provisions of the Essential Commodities Act 1955 or any order in force on that date, such products are exempt from any inventory limitation requirements. Parties entering into an agricultural agreement may require that “. the execution of such an agreement, in accordance with the quality, quality and standards of an agricultural product acceptable to both Parties. These standards must be consistent with “agronomic practices”, climate and other factors; they may be formulated by the State, the central government or a body authorized by the Government.
On September 20, 2020, Rajya Sabha passed two controversial agriculture laws amid the sedition of opposition members. The bills sparked protests from peasants in several places. The two land reform laws – the Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020 and the Farming Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, 2020 – were approved by vote in Parliament, although the opposition protested and stormed the well of this Assembly to send them to a narrower committee. These invoices are now being forwarded to President Ram Nath Kovind for permission.. . . .